Design inspired by Blackle

Dr. Rik Crutzen

Department of Health Promotion
Maastricht University/CAPHRI

rik (dot) crutzen (at) maastrichtuniversity (dot) nl

>> read about work in progress >>


Publications (International journals)
My Google scholar profile provides up to date citation scores and h-index

In press

Crutzen, R. & Ruiter, R.A.C. (in press). Interest in behaviour change interventions: a conceptual model. The European Health Psychologist.

Reinwand, D.A., Schulz, D.N., Crutzen, R., Kremers, S.P.J., & De Vries, H. (in press). Who follows eHealth interventions as recommended? A study of participants´ personal characteristics. Journal of Medical Internet Research.

Van Damme, J., Maes, L., Kuntsche, E., Crutzen, R., De Clerq, B., Van Lippeveld, W., & Hublet, A. (in press). The influence of parental drinking on offspring's drinking motives and drinking: a mediation analysis on 9 year follow-up data. Drug and Alcohol Dependence.

Vestjens, L., Kempen, G.I.J.M., Crutzen, R., Kok, G., & Zijlstra, G.A. (in press). Promising behavior change techniques in a multicomponent intervention to reduce concerns about falls in old age: a Delphi study. Health Education Research.

E-pub ahead of print

Bilal, S., Dinant, G.-J., Blanco, R., Crutzen, R., Mulugeta, A., & Spigt, M. (e-pub ahead of print). The influence of father's child feeding knowledge and practices on children's dietary diversity: a study in urban and rural districts of Northern Ethiopia, 2013. Maternal & Child Nutrition.

Giabbanelli, P.J. & Crutzen, R. (e-pub ahead of print). Supporting self-management of obesity using a novel game architecture. Health Informatics Journal.

Peters, G.-J.Y., De Bruin, M., & Crutzen, R. (e-pub ahead of print). Everything should be as simple as possible, but no simpler: towards a protocol for accumulating evidence regarding the active content of health behaviour change interventions. Health Psychology Review.
+ Response to commentary: De Bruin, M., Crutzen, R., & Peters, G.-J.Y. - Everything should be as simple as possible, but this will still be complex: a reply to various commentaries on IPEBA.


Crutzen, R., Viechtbauer, W., Spigt, M., & Kotz, D. (2015). Differential attrition in health behaviour change trials: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Psychology & Health, 30, 122-134.


Cremers, H.-P., Mercken, L., Crutzen, R., Willems, P., De Vries, H. & Oenema, A. (2014). Do email and mobile phone prompts stimulate primary school children to reuse an Internet-delivered smoking prevention intervention? Journal of Medical Internet Research, 16, e86.

Crutzen, R. (2014). The Behavioral Intervention Technology Model and Intervention Mapping: the best of both worlds. Journal of Medical Internet Research, 16, e188.

Crutzen, R. (2014). Time is a jailer: what do alpha and its alternatives tell us about reliability? The European Health Psychologist, 16, 70-74.

Crutzen, R. & Beaujean, D. (2014). Preventive behaviours regarding tick bites. BMJ, 348, g231.

Crutzen, R. & Giabbanelli, P.J. (2014). Using classifiers to identify binge drinkers based on drinking motives. Substance Use & Misuse, 49, 110-115.

Crutzen, R., Beekers, N., Van Eenbergen, M., Becker, M., Jongen, L., & Van Osch, L. (2014). e-Loyalty towards a cancer information website: applying a theoretical framework. Psycho-Oncology, 23, 685-691.

Crutzen, R., Bosma, H., Havas, J., & Feron, F. (2014). What can we learn from a failed trial: insight into non-participation in a chat-based intervention trial for adolescents with psychosocial problems. BMC Research Notes, 7, 824.

Crutzen, R., Ruiter, R.A.C., & De Vries, N.K. (2014). Can interest and enjoyment help to increase use of Internet-delivered interventions? Psychology & Health, 29, 1227–1244.

Giabbanelli, P.J. & Crutzen, R. (2014). Creating groups with similar expected behavioural response in Randomized Controlled Trials: a fuzzy cognitive map approach. BMC Medical Research Methodology, 14, 130.

Jander, A., Crutzen, R., Mercken, L., & De Vries, H. (2014). A Web-based computer-tailored game to reduce binge drinking among 16 to 18 year old Dutch adolescents: development and study protocol. BMC Public Health, 14, 1054.

Logsdon, M.C., Bennett, G., Crutzen, R., Martin, L. Eckert, D., Robertson, A., Myers, J., Tomasulo, R., Gregg, J., Barone, M., Lynch, T., & Flamini, L. (e-pub ahead of print). Preferred health resources and use of social media to obtain health and depression information by adolescent mothers. Journal of Child and Adolescent Psychiatric Nursing, 27, 163-168.

Theunissen, K.A.T.M., Schipper, P., Hoebe, C.J.P.A., Crutzen, R., Kok, G., & Dukers-Muijrers, N.H.T.M. (2014). Barriers to and facilitators of partner notification for Chlamydia trachomatis among health care professionals. BMC Health Services Research, 14, 647.

Van 't Riet, J., Crutzen, R., & Lu, A. (2014). The effects of active videogames among the young and the old: adding meta-analyses to two recent systematic reviews. Games for Health Journal, 3, 311-318.

Viechtbauer, W., Kotz, D., Spigt, M., Arts, I.C.W., & Crutzen, R. (2014). Higher efficiency and other alleged advantages are not inherent to the stepped wedge design. Journal of Clinical Epidemiology, 67, 834-836.


Badri, A., Crutzen, R., Eltayeb, S., & Van den Borne, H.W. (2013). Promoting Darfuri women's psychosocial health: developing a war-trauma counsellor training program tailored to the person. The EPMA Journal, 4, 10.

Badri, A., Crutzen, R., & Van den Borne, H.W. (2013). Coping resources and resilience characteristics among war-affected and non-war-affected Sudanese female university students: a comparative study. The Africa Institute Occasional Paper Series, 1, 3.

Badri, A.,Van den Borne, H.W., & Crutzen, R. (2013). Experiences and psychosocial adjustment of Darfuri female students affected by war: an exploratory study. International Journal of Psychology, 48, 944-953.

Beaujean, D.J.M.A., Gassner, F., Wong, A., Van Steenbergen, J.E., Crutzen, R., & Ruwaard, D. (2013). Determinants and protective behaviours regarding tick bites among school children in the Netherlands: a cross-sectional study. BMC Public Health, 13, 1148.

Beaujean, D.J.M.A., Van Velsen, L., Van Gemert-Pijnen, J.E.W.C., Maat, A., Van Steenbergen, J., & Crutzen, R. (2013). Using risk group profiles as a lightweight qualitative approach for intervention development: an example on prevention of tick bites and Lyme disease. JMIR Research Protocols, 2, e45.

Bessems, K.M.H.H., Van Assema, P., Crutzen, R., Paulussen, T.G.W.M., & De Vries, N.K. (2013). Examining the relationship between completeness of teachers' implementation of the Krachtvoer healthy diet programme and changes in students' dietary intakes. Public Health Nutrition, 16, 1273-1280.

Crutzen, R. (2013). Comparing theory-based interventions, theories, or behavior change methods? Health Psychology.

Crutzen, R., Cyr, D., Larios, H., Ruiter, R.A.C., & De Vries, N.K. (2013). Social presence and use of Internet-delivered interventions: a multi-method approach. PLOS ONE, 8, e57067.

Crutzen, R. & Kuntsche, E. (2013). Validation of the four-dimensional structure of drinking motives among adults. European Addiction Research, 19, 222-226.

Crutzen, R., Kuntsche, E., & Schelleman-Offermans, K. (2013). Drinking motives and drinking behavior over time: a full cross-lagged panel study among adults. Psychology of Addictive Behaviors, 27, 197-201.

Crutzen, R., Roosjen, J.L., & Poelman, J. (2013). Using Google Analytics as a process evaluation method for Internet-delivered interventions: an example on sexual health. Health Promotion International, 28, 36-42.

Crutzen, R., Viechtbauer, W., Kotz, D., & Spigt, M. (2013). No differential attrition was found in randomized controlled trials published in general medical journals: a meta-analysis. Journal of Clinical Epidemiology, 66, 948-954.

Giabbanelli, P.J. & Crutzen, R. (2013). An agent-based social network model of binge drinking among Dutch adults. Journal of Artificial Societies and Social Simulation, 16, 10.

Jander, A., Mercken, L., Crutzen, R., & De Vries, H. (2013). Determinants of binge drinking in a permissive environment: focus group interviews with Dutch adolescents and parents. BMC Public Health, 13, 882.

Kohl, L.F.M., Crutzen, R., & De Vries, N.K. (2013). Online prevention aimed at lifestyle behaviors: a systematic review of reviews. Journal of Medical Internet Research, 15, e146.

Mukhayer, A.I.G., Van den Borne H.W., Crutzen R., & De Vries, N.K. (2013). Determinants of dietary behaviors of school going adolescents in Sudan. Journal of Child and Adolescent Behavior, 1, 102.

Stanczyk, N.E., Crutzen, R., Bolman, C., Muris, J.W.M., & De Vries, H. (2013). Influence of delivery strategy on message-processing mechanisms and future adherence of a Dutch computer-tailored smoking cessation intervention. Journal of Medical Internet Research, 15, e28.

Theunissen, K.A.T.M., Hoebe, C.J.P.A., Crutzen, R., Kara-Zaïtri, C., De Vries, N.K., Van Bergen, J.E.A.M., Van der Sande, M.A.B., & Dukers-Muijrers, N.H.T.M. (2013). Using Intervention Mapping for the development of a targeted secure web-based outreach strategy named SafeFriend, for Chlamydia trachomatis testing in young people at risk. BMC Public Health, 13, 996.


Badri, A., Crutzen, R., & Van den Borne, H.W. (2012). Exposures to war-related traumatic events and post-traumatic stress disorder symptoms among displaced Darfuri female university students: an exploratory study. BMC Public Health, 12, 603.

Crutzen, R. (2012). From eHealth technologies to interventions. Journal of Medical Internet Research, 14, e93.

Crutzen, R., Cyr, D., & De Vries, N.K. (2012). The role of user control in adherence to and knowledge gained from a website: randomized comparison between a tunneled version and a freedom-of-choice version. Journal of Medical Internet Research, 14, e45.

Crutzen, R., De Kruif, L., & De Vries, N.K. (2012). You never get a second chance to make a first impression: the effect of visual complexity on intention to use websites. Interaction Studies, 13, 469-477.

Crutzen, R. & Gao, G. (2012). eHealth: What is needed at the policy level? Policy & Internet, 4, 1.

Crutzen, R. & Göritz, A.S. (2012). Public awareness and practical knowledge regarding Hepatitis A, B, and C: a two-country survey. Journal of Infection and Public Health, 5, 195-198.

Crutzen, R. & Knibbe, R.A. (2012). A Dutch panel study on the relation between structure of everyday life, daily hassles, and alcohol consumption. BMC Public Health, 12, 1068.

Crutzen, R., Nijhuis, E., & Mujakovic, S. (2012). Negative associations between primary school children's perception of being allowed to drink at home and alcohol use. Mental Health and Substance Use: dual diagnosis, 5, 64-69.
+ Response to commentary: Associations and mixed findings.

Crutzen, R., Peters, G.-J.Y., & Abraham, C. (2012). What about trialists sharing other study materials? BMJ, 345, e8352.

Göritz, A.S. & Crutzen, R. (2012). Reminders in web-based data collection: increasing response at the price of retention? American Journal of Evaluation, 33, 240-250.

Kotz, D., Spigt, M., Arts, I.C.W., Crutzen, R., & Viechtbauer, W. (2012). Use of the stepped wedge design cannot be recommended: a critical appraisal and comparison with the classic cluster randomized controlled trial design. Journal of Clinical Epidemiology, 65, 1249–1252.
+ Response to commentary: Researchers should convince policy makers to perform a classic cluster RCT instead of a stepped wedge design when an intervention is rolled out.
+ Response to commentary: The stepped wedge design does not inherently have more power than a cluster randomized controlled trial.

Peters, G.-J.Y., Abraham, C., & Crutzen, R. (2012). Full disclosure: doing behavioural science necessitates sharing. The European Health Psychologist, 14, 77-84.

Sassen, B., Kok, G., Mesters, I., Crutzen, R., Cremers, A., & Vanhees, L. (2012). A web-based intervention for health professionals and patients to decrease cardiovascular risk attributable to physical inactivity: development process. JMIR Research Protocols, 1, e21.


Al-Iryani, B., Basaleem, H., Al-Sakkaf, K., Crutzen, R., Kok, G., & Van den Borne, B. (2011). Evaluation of a school-based HIV prevention intervention among Yemeni adolescents. BMC Public Health, 11, 279.

Brouwer, W., Kroeze, W., Crutzen, R., De Nooijer, J., De Vries, N.K., Brug, J., & Oenema, A. (2011). Which intervention characteristics are related to more exposure to Internet-delivered healthy lifestyle promotion interventions? A systematic review. Journal of Medical Internet Research, 13, e2.

Crutzen, R. (2011). Is it time to start focussing on content of computer-delivered interventions? Addiction, 106, 1871.

Crutzen, R., Cyr, D., & De Vries, N.K. (2011). Bringing loyalty to e-health: theory validation using three Internet-delivered interventions. Journal of Medical Internet Research, 13, e73.

Crutzen, R. & De Nooijer, J. (2011) Intervening via chat: an opportunity for adolescents’ mental health promotion? Health Promotion International, 26, 238-243.

Crutzen, R., De Nooijer, J., Brouwer, W., Oenema, A., Brug, J., & De Vries, N. K. (2011). Strategies to facilitate exposure to Internet-delivered health behaviour change interventions aimed at adolescents or young adults: a systematic review. Health Education & Behavior, 38, 49-62.

Crutzen, R. & Göritz, A.S. (2011). Does social desirability compromise self-reports of physical activity in web-based research? International Journal of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity, 8, 31.

Crutzen, R. & Mevissen, F.E.F. (2011). Just another manic Monday: peaking sexual concerns after the weekend. Archives of Sexual Behavior, 40, 1105-1106.

Crutzen, R., Peters, G.-J.Y., Dias Portugal, S., Fisser, E.M., & Grolleman, J.J. (2011). An artificially intelligent chat agent that answers adolescents’ questions related to sex, drugs, and alcohol: an exploratory study. Journal of Adolescent Health, 48, 514-519.

Havas, J., De Nooijer, J., Crutzen, R., & Feron, F. (2011). Adolescents’ view about an Internet platform for adolescents with mental health problems. Health Education, 111, 164-176.


Brouwer, W., Oenema, A., Raat, H., Crutzen, R., De Nooijer, J., De Vries, N.K., & Brug, J. (2010). Characteristics of visitors and revisitors of an Internet-delivered computer-tailored lifestyle intervention implemented for use by the general public. Health Education Research, 25, 585-595.

Crutzen, R. (2010). A systematic review on computer-based education for patients with hypertension: what about effect sizes? Health Education Journal, 69, 365-366.

Crutzen, R. (2010). Adding effect sizes to a systematic review on interventions for promoting physical activity among European teenagers. International Journal of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity, 7, 29.

Crutzen, R. & Göritz, A.S. (2010). Social desirability and self-reported health risk behaviors in web-based research: three longitudinal studies. BMC Public Health, 10, 720.

Crutzen, R., Knibbe, R.A., & Mysyuk, Y. (2010). Unravelling the role of drinking motives in the relationship between stress and alcohol use and its related problems. Mental Health and Substance Use: dual diagnosis, 3, 38-46.

Van ‘t Riet, J., Crutzen, R., & De Vries, H. (2010). Investigating predictors of visiting, using and revisiting an online health-education programme: a longitudinal study. Journal of Medical Internet Research, 12, e37.


Brouwer, W., Oenema, A., Crutzen, R., De Nooijer, J., De Vries, N.K., & Brug, J. (2009). What makes people decide to visit and use an Internet-delivered behaviour-change intervention? A qualitative study among adults. Health Education, 109, 460-473.

Crutzen, R., De Nooijer, J., Brouwer, W., Oenema, A., Brug, J., & De Vries, N.K. (2009). A conceptual framework for understanding and improving adolescents’ exposure to Internet-delivered interventions. Health Promotion International, 24, 277-284.

Crutzen, R., De Nooijer, J., Brouwer, W., Oenema, A., Brug, J., & De Vries, N.K. (2009). Effectiveness of online word of mouth on exposure to an Internet-delivered intervention. Psychology & Health, 24, 651-661.


Brouwer, W., Oenema, A., Crutzen, R., De Nooijer, J., De Vries, N.K., & Brug, J. (2008). An exploration of factors related to dissemination of and exposure to Internet-delivered behavior change interventions aimed at adults: a Delphi study approach. Journal of Medical Internet Research, 10, e10.

Crutzen, R., De Nooijer, J., Brouwer, W., Oenema, A., Brug, J., & De Vries, N.K. (2008). Internet-delivered interventions aimed at adolescents: a Delphi study on dissemination and exposure. Health Education Research, 23, 427-439.

Crutzen, R., De Nooijer, J., Brouwer, W., Oenema, A., Brug, J., & De Vries, N.K. (2008). Qualitative assessment of adolescents’ views about improving exposure to Internet-delivered interventions. Health Education, 108, 105-116.

Crutzen, R., De Nooijer, J., Candel, M.J.J.M., & De Vries, N.K. (2008). Adolescents who intend to change multiple health behaviours choose greater exposure to an Internet-delivered intervention. Journal of Health Psychology, 13, 906-911.

Crutzen, R., De Nooijer, J., & De Vries, N.K. (2008). How to reach a target group with Internet-delivered interventions? The European Health Psychologist, 10, 77-79.

Reinaerts, E., Crutzen, R., Candel, M.J.J.M., De Vries, N.K., & De Nooijer, J. (2008). Increasing fruit & vegetable intake among children: comparing long-term effects of a free distribution and a multi-component program. Health Education Research, 23, 987-996.


Publications (National journals)

Crutzen, R. & De Vries, N.K. (in press). Online preventie op het gebied van leefstijl: enkele overdenkingen. Tijdschrift voor Gezondheidswetenschappen.

Beaujean, D.J.M.A., Gassner, F., Wong, A., Van Steenbergen, J.E., Crutzen, R., & Ruwaard, D. (2014). Wat weten, denken en vinden Nederlandse schoolkinderen van teken en lymeziekte? Infectieziekten Bulletin, 25, 255-257.

Ovink, A., Schaper, N., Heinrich, E., & Crutzen, R. (2010). DIEP: na de DESG-prijs enthousiast verder!  DiabeteSpecialist, 34, 7.



Crutzen, R. (2009). Hard to get, hard to keep. Dissemination of and exposure to Internet-delivered health behaviour change interventions aimed at adolescents. Maastricht: Universitaire Pers Maastricht.


Contributions to books

Crutzen, R. (2012). Internet-delivered health behaviour change interventions aimed at adolescents. In J.A. O'Dea (Ed.), Current Issues and Controversies in School and Community Health, Sport and Physical Education (pp. 167-179). New York: Nova Science Publishers.

Crutzen, R. (2011). On the use of Internet-delivered interventions in worksite health promotion. In I. T. Robertson & C. L. Cooper (Eds.), Well-being: Productivity and Happiness at Work (pp. 174-182). Hampshire: Palgrave Macmillan.

Crutzen, R. (2010). Improving the public health impact of Internet-delivered interventions. In R. E. Murphy (Ed.), Health Psychology (pp. 145-153). New York: Nova Science Publishers.



Scientific reports

Gerards, S., Rutten, G., Crutzen, R., & Kremers, S. (2015). Blessure- en valpreventie bij beginnende bewegers met overgewicht en obesitas [Injury and fall prevention among overweight people and obese who start exercising]. Maastricht: Maastricht University.

Keer, M., Schokker, D., Van Empelen, P., Crutzen, R., Kok, G., & Paulussen, T. (2014). Gedragswetenschappelijke kennissynthese chlamydiapreventie [Synthesis chlamydia prevention]. Leiden: TNO.

Crutzen, R., Kohl, L., & De Vries, N.K. (2013). Kennissynthese online preventie [Synthesis online prevention]. Maastricht: Universitaire Pers Maastricht.

Crutzen, R. (2012). Wat is het zoekgedrag van de gebruiker van Wat leert Google Analytics ons? In No nonSense: Onderzoek onder de gebruikers van Sense (pp. 17-27). Utrecht: Rutgers WPF & Soa Aids Nederland.

Crutzen, R. (2010). Optimalisering van de betrokkenheid van deelnemers en datakwaliteit in een cohortstudie. Maastricht: Maastricht University.

Mesters, I., Van der Velden, N., Drenthen, T., Van Dale, D., Kok, G., Brug, J., Crutzen, R., & Van der Velde, M. (2010). Standaard Web-based leefstijlinterventies.

Crutzen, R., Brouwer, W., Brug, J., De Vries, N.K., Oenema, A., & De Nooijer, J. (2008). Gezondheidsbevorderende interventies via internet: onderzoek naar mogelijkheden voor effectievere verspreiding en blootstelling. Maastricht: Maastricht University.

In my capacity as editor of The European Health Psychologist

Crutzen, R. (2009). Health promotion in developing countries: an interview with Bart van den Borne. The European Health Psychologist, 11, 2-3.

Crutzen, R. (2009). Public health genomics and its potential for health psychology: an interview with Angela Brand. The European Health Psychologist, 11, 61-63.

Book reviews

Crutzen, R. (2010). Kids and credibility. Center for Digital Ethics & Policy, Loyola University Chicago.

Crutzen, R. (2010). Neuro web design: What makes them click? Health Education, 110, 508-509.